Foundations of Feedback

Topic Progress:

Hattie and Timperley1 identified a model for effective feedback that provides the theoretical foundation for how to provide feedback and why feedback is so important for student learning and the attainment of learning outcomes through the use of high-level cognitive skills. They argue that feedback is among the top 10 influences on student achievement, but that the effect can be either positive or negative, leading to the conclusion that it is important to understand how to ensure the effect is positive.

Please take a few minutes to read Hattie’s recent book section Feedback in schools 2.

A Model for Effective Feedback


Further Reading

Hattie, J. (2011). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. London: Routledge.


  1. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81-112. doi:10.3102/003465430298487
  2. Hattie, J. (2011). Feedback in schools. In R. Sutton, M. J. Hornsey, & K. M. Douglas (Eds.), Feedback: The communication of praise, criticism, and advice. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. Retrieved from