Facilitation Indicators

Topic Progress:

Garrison1(p. 59) provides a list of facilitation indicators and corresponding examples.

  • Identifying areas of agreement/disagreement.
    • ‘Joe, Mary has provided a compelling counter-example to your hypothesis. Would you care to respond?’
  • Seeking to reach consensus/understanding.
    • ‘I think Joe and Mary are saying essentially the same thing.’
  • Encouraging, acknowledging, or reinforcing student contributions.
    • ‘Thank you for your insightful comments.’
  • Setting climate for learning.
    • ‘Don’t feel self-conscious about thinking our loud on the forum. This is a place to try out ideas, after all.’
  • Drawing in participants, prompting discussion.
    • ‘Any thoughts on this issue?’
    • ‘Anyone care to comment?’
  • Assess the efficacy of the process.
    • ‘I think we’re getting a little off track here.’

Garrison’s examples are admittedly focused on the facilitation of synchronous learning environments, it does not take much to modify the examples for an asynchronous context. Feel free to comment on this page with your examples.


  1. Garrison, D. R. (2011). E-learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.