Direct Instruction Indicators

Topic Progress:

Again, Garrison1 (p. 60), provides indicators and examples of direct instruction.

  • Present content/questions.
    • ‘Bates says…what do you think?’
  • Focus the discussion on specific issues.
    • ‘I think that is a dead end. I would ask you to consider…’
  • Summarize the discussion.
    • ‘The original question was…Joe said…Mary said…we concluded that…we still haven’t addressed…’
  • Confirm understanding through assessment and explanatory feedback.
    • ‘You’re close, but you didn’t account for…this is important because…’
  • Diagnose misconceptions.
    • ‘Remember, Bates is speaking from an administrative perspective, so be careful when you say…’
  • Inject knowledge from diverse sources, e.g., textbook, articles, Internet, personal experiences (includes pointers to resources).
    • ‘I was at a conference with Bates once, and he said…You can find the proceedings from the conference at www…’
  • Responding to technical concerns.
    • ‘If you want to include a hyperlink in your message, you have to…’



  1. Garrison, D. R. (2011). E-learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.