Lesson 2

Graphic Overview

Graphic Organizer L2

In Lesson 2, we will explore how students approach learning activities in one of two primary ways. Depending on various factors, students will either take a deep or a surface approach to learning activities. This way of exploring learning was initially proposed by Marton and Säljö1, and was expanded by Biggs, Kember and Leung2.

Additionally, we will discuss the SOLO Taxonomy3 as a tool that can be used in the design of learning outcomes, learning activities, and ensuring that the outcomes and activities are aligned.


  1. Marton, F., & Säljö, R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning: I—outcome and process. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, 4-11. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8279.1976.tb02980.x
  2. Biggs, J., Kember, D., & Leung, D. Y. P. (2001). The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 133-149. doi:10.1348/000709901158433
  3. Biggs, J., & Collis, K. (1982). Evaluating the quality of learning: The SOLO taxonomy. New York: Academic Press.