Again, Garrison1 (p. 60), provides indicators and examples of direct instruction.
- Present content/questions.
- ‘Bates says…what do you think?’
- Focus the discussion on specific issues.
- ‘I think that is a dead end. I would ask you to consider…’
- Summarize the discussion.
- ‘The original question was…Joe said…Mary said…we concluded that…we still haven’t addressed…’
- Confirm understanding through assessment and explanatory feedback.
- ‘You’re close, but you didn’t account for…this is important because…’
- Diagnose misconceptions.
- ‘Remember, Bates is speaking from an administrative perspective, so be careful when you say…’
- Inject knowledge from diverse sources, e.g., textbook, articles, Internet, personal experiences (includes pointers to resources).
- ‘I was at a conference with Bates once, and he said…You can find the proceedings from the conference at www…’
- Responding to technical concerns.
- ‘If you want to include a hyperlink in your message, you have to…’
- Garrison, D. R. (2011). E-learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.